Surau INYIK Djambek, CHAIN
REFORM MOVEMENT OF ISLAMIC THOUGHT
By: H. Mas’oed Abidin
In the early 20th century, in West Sumatra are marked with a period full of social and intellectual upheaval. In starting with the return of three scholars Minangkabau after studying in Mecca, which is Inyik Djambek, Inyik Apostles and Inyik Abdullah Ahmad bring modernization of Islam and thoughts Muhammad Abduh and Jamaluddin al-Afghani in Egypt.
The movement is not only motivated by the reform movement that has flourished in Egypt but also by the encouragement rivalry against the Western-educated class that would materially and socially looks more prestigious.
Sheikh Muhammad Djamil Djambek (1860 – 1947), is one of three pioneer scholar of Islamic renewal of West Sumatra in the early 20th century, born in Bukittinggi, which was originally known as the Sufi Sheikh who obtained a diploma from the congregation Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyah and an expert leading astronomy.
The name of Sheikh Muhammad Djamil Djambek better known as Sheikh Muhammad Djamil Inyik Djambek or Inyik Djambek, who was born of noble family, from father named Saleh Datuk Maleka, a descendant of princes and chiefs Kurai, while his mother came from Batavia.
During his childhood, Muhammad Djamil get an education in the Lower School that prepares students to enter the school teacher (Kweekschool). Into the teenage years he was familiar with life parewa who do not want to disrupt family life, widespread among parewa mix of mutual respect, even though actual life happy parewa gamble, risking chickens, but experts in the martial and martial arts.
At the time Muhammad Djamil aged 22 years, became interested in religious studies and Arabic, and studied at the surau Koto Mambang, in Pariaman and in Batipuh lowland. When he was 35 years (1896), his father brought to Mecca, and lived there for 9 years studying the science of religion, under the guidance of his teachers, among others Djalaluddin Taher, Sheikh Bafaddhal, Sarawak Sheikh and Sheikh Ahmad el Khatib Minangkabawy.
During studied in Mecca, much of which is devoted learned about science congregation, in the Jabal Abu Qubais.
Not surprisingly, he is respected Sufi Sheikh.
However, of all the science that made him famous is didalaminya and astronomy, which studied the Sheikh Taher Djalaluddin, and then taught astronomy who demanded that, to the people of Sumatra and Jawi who settled in Mecca, especially to the student of knowledge of the Minangkabau who studied in Mecca. Like, Ibrahim Musa Parabek (founder of the college Tawalib Parabek) and Sheikh Abdullah (founder of the college Tawalib Padang Panjang).
In 1903, Muhammad Djamil return to their homeland, and began to give lessons in traditional religion. Many of his disciples from among the congregation came to study engineering. Among his students call Inyik Djambek, because he looked very neat and orderly maintain vase and beard, which in the Minang language called Djambek.
His heart was more inclined to give his knowledge, though not through the institution or organization. He was so interested in the quest to improve one’s faith. He started to leave and return to near Bukittinggi parewa life in Kamang, a village center of Islamic reform under Tuanku nan Renceh in the 19th century. He began to build the mosque in two Central Rice and in Kamang the Koran and spread religious knowledge to increase faith.
Over time, attitudes and views of the congregation began to change. Sheikh Muhammad Djamil Djambek now, no longer interested in the congregation. In early 1905, held a meeting to discuss the validity of religious congregations, in the Mount Surungan, Padang Panjang. He was in the party who oppose the orders, Bayang and dealing with Hajj Sheikh Abbas who defend congregations.
He wrote a book about the criticism of the congregation entitled Information About the Origin of Thariqatu al-Naksyabandiyyah and Everything Related to Him, consisting of two volumes. One explanation in the book, the congregation Naksyabandiyyah created by people from Persia and India, which is full of superstition and superstition, which is farther away from the teachings of Islam. Another book titled Understanding Sufism and Sufi written to realize the reform of Islamic thought. But in general he did not want to be hostile to the Minangkabau customs. Dozens of polemical books, both in Arabic and Malay language began to be published.
Inyik Djambek choose apply their knowledge directly to the public, and teach and study the science of ketauhidan bertabligh manner, in surau Tangah Rice Bukittinggi built in 1908 and became surau Inyik Djambek, until now. Presumably this is a big change that you brought from overseas to study in a land of Mecca.
Conveys that Islam as demanded by the times, which requires reaching progress, telling seek knowledge, and build the life of the world, respecting the position of women, and explain that Islam is a religion overall, which submitted the basic teachings of the prophets who was sent to all nations (Qur’an, 10; 47; 2: 164; 35:24, 40:78). Prophets task was completed by the Prophet Muhammad, the apostle of the last messenger to all mankind, and the scholars obliged to convey it to mankind, through tabligh.
Sheikh Muhammad Djamil Djambek concluded that the teachings of Islam that should be delivered through lectures tabligh and (wirid-wirid), which was attended by the public. His attention is intended to enhance one’s faith. He gained the sympathy of the characters ninik Kweekschool mamak and among teachers. In fact he held a dialogue with non-Islamic people and the Chinese.
Its popularity is that he is friendly with people who do not agree fahamnya. Suraunya was a meeting place for Islamic organizations.
Inyik Djambek began actively bertabligh and writing.
In 1913, he founded the organization is social in Bukittinggi named Tsamaratul Ichwan which publishes booklets and brochures about religious instruction without making profit. Some years he moves on in this organization until it becomes a commercial enterprise. At that time, he did not participate anymore in the company.
Finally, he came to the conclusion that most village children do not perform perfectly religion not because of lack of faith and devotion, but because they lack knowledge about the teachings of Islam itself. He condemned the people who still love teaching congregation. He approached ninik mamak and discuss various problems of society.
In 1929, Sheikh Muhammad Djambek founded an organization called the National Union of Minangkabau in order to preserve, respect local customs and love. He is also active in community organizations.
Although formally, he does not bind himself to a particular organization, such as Muhammadiyah and Thawalib. He always gave impetus to the renewal of Islamic thought with the help of those organizations., And various magazines, newspapers proclaiming things such upheaval of thought, and streams in the understanding within schools of Islamic law, many start to appear, and customary practice in accordance syarak guide, the Islamic religion, is very busy talking.
One of the pioneers of the reform movement in Minangkabau who spread his thoughts from Mecca in the early 20th century was Sheikh Ahmad el Khatib Minangkabawy (1855).
He is a descendant of a judge Padri movement is really anti-colonial Dutch. He was born in Bukittinggi in 1855 by a mother named Limbak explained, the brother of Muhammad Salih Datuk Bagindo, Barrel, head of Nagari Ampek Angkek, comes from the Koto Tuo Balaigurah, District Ampek Angkek Candung. His father was Abdullatief Khatib Nagari, the brother of Datuk Rangkayo Mangkuto, Barrel, head of Nagari Kotogadang, District IV Koto, across the canyon Bukittinggi.
Both of the mother or the father, Ahmad Khatib was the son of prominent, from among the families that have a religious background and strong custom, son and nephew of two of my lord Ampek Barrel of Koto and Ampek Angkek, which together have a high status in traditional , my lord barrel family, background Padri fighters, from family Pakih Saghir and Tuanku nan Tuo.
Ahmad Khatib was educated at grammar school, founded the Dutch in her hometown. He left his hometown to go to Mecca in 1871 was brought by his father. Until he completed his education in Mecca, and married in 1879 with a daughter of Sheikh Salih al Kurd named Siti Khadijah, and since then Sheikh Ahmad Khatib began teaching dikediamannya in Mecca, and never return to their homes.
Sheikh Ahmad Khatib, reaching the highest level position in teaching religion as a priest of the School Syafei at the Grand Mosque in Mecca. As a priest of the School Syafe’i, he did not forbid his disciples to study the writings of Muhammad ‘Abduh, a reformer in Islamic thought in Egypt.
Sheikh Ahmad Khatib was rejected two kinds of habits in Minangkabau, about the legacy and the congregation Naqsyahbandiyah who practiced at that time. Both problems were continuously dibahasnya, diluruskannya, and that is not in line with Islamic law opposed.
Understanding and deepening of Sheikh Ahmad el Khatib Minangkabawy, was later taken by the reform movement in Minangkabau, through tabligh at surau-surau, discussions, and scholars and zu’ama muzakarah, publishing brochures and newspaper movement, establishment of schools such as madrasa Thawalib Sumatra-madrasah, and Diniyah Puteri, to the villages-villages in Minangkabau, thus becoming a pioneer of the Republic of Indonesian independence movement.
Ahmad Khatib thoughts trigger a renewal of Islamic thought in Minangkabau. On the other hand, resistance to the idea Ahmad Khatib came from the Islamic tradition, which is sometimes called the elderly. Criticism about the orders, has been answered by Sheikh Muhamamad When bin Tanta ‘from Mungkar and Sheikh Ali Khatib in the Valley who published several papers about it. Criticism within the estate, raising awareness Minangkabau people to understand, that can not be adjusted matrilineal inheritance law with religious law. Criticism after criticism has given birth to think and study the dynamics, thus was born the tradition of science, in which one eye is on surau Inyik chain Djambek.
Among the many religious teachers also are unable to approve the establishment of Ahmad Khatib, who is considered not know peace. Although those thoughts with challenges posed by the customs, as well as students who do not approve of thought so, but this disagreement has spawned a desire to further develop, to revive the reintroduction of consciousness themselves, namely consciousness to leave underdevelopment.
Sheikh Ahmad Khatib al Minangkabawy spread from Mecca his thoughts through his writings in magazines or books of Islam, and through the students who studied him. That way, he maintains close contact with local Minangkabau origin, through his students who perform the pilgrimage to Mecca, and who studied with him. They were what later became teachers in their respective homelands.
Zuama cleric Ahmad Khatib former student, began explores thought, when followers of Islam intends to remain satisfactory, it must happen a renewal. Each period in the history of human civilization, gave birth to the idea of religious reform which aims to improve the livelihood pattern of his people. Ideals were rediscovered in religion.
How to think an Islamic religious belief is based on the assumption, that Islam is not possible hostile culture. With advances in ways of thinking people are trying to rediscover his goal in Islam. The question arises, whether there are elements in Islam pertaining to the ideals of equality, nationalism, the desire to progress and rationalism. The advantages of Sheikh Ahmad Khatib in giving lessons to his student, always avoid taqlid attitude.
His students later became the driving reform of Islamic thought in Minangkabau, such as Sheikh Muhammad Djamil Djambek (1860 – 1947), Haji Abdul Karim Amarullah (1879-1945), and Haji Abdullah Ahmad (1878 – 1933), which later became one of the scholars and zuama, leader of the reformers in Minangkabau, Sumatra Thawalib founder, who started from recitation in Mosque Zuama, Iron Bridge, Padangpanjang, and later also founded the Islamic Religious Teachers Association (PGAI), in Jati, Padang, together with Djamil Djambek, in 1919.
The pioneer of reform of Islamic thought in Minangkabau come from all fields of professions, including ulama (Haji Apostle), among traders (H. Abdullah Ahmad), and generally succeeded in removing himself from tradition, such as Sheikh Djamil Djambek, Haji Rasul, Abdullah Haji Ahmad and Ibrahim Musa Parabek, in his lifetime is seen as a great scholar, a place to repatriate all the issues of religion and society in general.
Reform movement of thought in the field of religion the most widely heard in West Sumatra, sometimes they are called the modernist or also called youth. Ulama Zuama updates thinking that drives many times said, that in every field may use reasonable, which is actually the gift of God, except the religious sector.
If the trust remains an acceptance of teachers’ authority alone, without memungsikan mind, it’s called taqlid such Trust, it is useless. Sensible person should be adored God alone and for that he should learn the roots of law (usul al-fiqh).
To introduce all the core teachings of Islam to the general public is necessary to the delivery of movement in general, in the form of tabligh. Here lies the greatest gait Djambek Sheikh Mohammed, a cleric of a respected, for the first time introduce bertablig way in public, and survived until now, in the span of a century.
Litany (narrator) or Marhaban (praise) which is recited in the mosque, mosque, replaced with tabligh, tells the history of Prophet Muhammad SAW in Malay, so that is understandable by all levels of society. Included is also a tradition of reading the book, replaced by discussing the problems of everyday life, in a tradition of science.
All was done because the religion is for anyone who can understand it. He is also known as a scholar who is more active in tablig activities and lectures, followed by other reformers in the realm of Minangkabau, and then developed into an effort to maintain, and see to Islam to avoid a hazard that can damage it, by spreading information to people.
Djamil Djambek appropriate expertise to schedule an hour of prayer and fasting for the month of Ramadan. The schedule is published each year in his name began in 1911 Djambek Because Inyik known as Mr. Science Falak, he also publishes Natijah Durriyyah for a period of 100 years, although major work is a problem that is disputed by the traditionalists.
Inyik Djambek great respect for the customs Minangkabau, who jointed jointed syarak syarak and God’s Book. He attended the first congress of the Assembly Natural High Density Traditional Minangkabau in 1939. No less important in the course of preaching, during the Japanese occupation, Sheikh Muhammad Djambek establish the High Islamic Council (MIT), based in Bukittinggi.
One other reformers, which gives the color in Minangkabau is Sheikh Taher Djalaluddin (1869-1956), in his youth was called Mohammed Tahir bin Sheikh Mohammed, born in Ampek Angkek, Bukittinggi, 1869, son of Sheikh Cangking, grandson of the title Faqih Saghir Tuanku Djalaluddin Sheikh Ahmad Sami ‘, the pioneer returned to the teachings of the Shari’a with Tuanku Nan Tuo. Sheikh Taher Djalaluddin is a cousin of Ahmad Khatib Al Minangkabawy, because his mother’s brother and sister. He is regarded as a teacher by the reformer in Minangkabau.
Effect of Sheikh Taher Djalaluddin spread on his students through the magazine Al-Imam who encourage Muslims to wage jihad how important having an independent state, in order to achieve progress, and compete with the western world, with established schools.
In Singapore with Raja Ali Haji ibn Ahmad in 1908, they founded the school named Al-Iqbal al-Islamiyah, which became the model Adabiyah School which was founded by Haji Abdullah Ahmad in Padang in 1908. Sheikh Taher just to go home to the Minangkabau in 1923 and 1927, but when he was arrested and detained by the Dutch Government for six months
After the free Sheikh Taher leave his hometown and never returned to his native village, to death in 1956, in Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaya.
Pembaruaan movement in the early 20th century can be called a reform movement zuama scholars, who actually has inherited continued to be continued in the chain of continuous history since the two previous Padri movement. It can also be stated that the reform movement zuama scholars in the early 20th century in the Minangkabau a chain of Padri movement of the third period.
Padri movement of the first period, in the early eighteenth century, scholars began his return triumvirate Minang (1802), consists of Haji Poor in Clever Sikek, LUHAK Agam, Haji Abdur Rahman, in Piobang, LUHAK Limopuluah, and Haji Muhammad Arief, in Sumanik, nan Tuo LUHAK, Tanah Datar, who is also known Lintau Tuanku title, begins with the awareness of Islamic religious spirit in the life of habitual in Minangkabau.
Padri Movement perode second followed by Tuanku nan Tuo, Tuanku nan Renceh, lord Kubu Sanang, Koto Ambalau lord, my lord in Lubuk Aur, lord in the field Laweh and Tuanku Imam Bonjol that ends with perlawaanan against Dutch colonial rule (1821-1837), and birth Marapalam an agreed charter adaik basandi syarak, syarak basandi in the realm of God’s Book Minangkabau.
Renewal of Islam in Minangkabau is not merely limited to the activities and thoughts alone. But rediscover the basic Islamic teachings or principles that apply timeless, that can overcome space and time. Meanwhile, reform efforts are practical, either in the form of schools and madrassas, or child craft villages, began to appear.
The reformer of Islamic thought trying to restore the basic teachings of Islam by removing all sorts of additions that burden, by releasing the Islamists from the old-fashioned, the freezing of the world’s problems.
The ideal of the mind to promote people with the Islamic religion and kaffah syumul, can only be achieved through the practice of Shari’a, which is divided to monotheism, worship and morals. In worship, all forbidden, except as he was told. In connection with new traditions that do not have orders, it is not acceptable as worship, and called a heretic. Morals also imitate the Prophet Muhammad, so it appears that well-mannered society with Islamic morality.
In the activities of religious purification, the reformers against the various heresies that divided based on heresy by law (Syar’iyah), and heresy in the matter of faith (heresy on proves), which can give birth heresy in practice, such as pronunciation niyah and superstition superstition.
On the progress of Islam does not have to grow parallel with the development of intellectual, because there are things that are prohibited and ordered to, within the limits of lawful and unlawful, and amar ma’ruf and nahyun ‘annealing evil, as the true nature of Islam. Religion also arrange things concerned with the world in achieving the life hereafter.
This problem is containing the value ‘ubudiyah, in the sense under orders from the din of Allah, whereas the practice of worldly ways, and the goal ultimately is the life hereafter. For instance, orders to maintain the orphan, to respect the elderly, cleaning teeth, whose implementation largely lies in the choice of individuals, but relates to syarak mangato adaik mamakai.
Then comes also to the more sensitive issues, political issues and then spread the anti-colonial nationalism towards Indonesia Raya, not apart from this intellectual upheaval. Not only the problem fikh, but also the problem of unity must be faced with an open mind.
Fundamental differences between the innovation that violates the law of truth, which sourced the Quran and Hadith, and renewal as a result of the transitional period, should be distinguished clearly, which is ordered and which ditegah.
The reformers believe that the chapter al-ijtihad, still remains open. ; They refused taqlid. Ijtihad brings more attention to the reformer for an opinion.
The desire to get out of situations that are considered incompatible with the ideas of the ideal, Minangkabau confronts the choices that are sometimes contradictory.
Changes in accordance with Islamic teachings, is the solution. But how it is with traditional institutions that have been ingrained in the life of the Minangkabau.
Custom parameters that can sometimes close the road is limited to the developed world. In addition to the limitations syarak dealing with problems of sin and not sin, or a matter of vanity and haq. So preaches through tabligh, to played to give knowledge and introduction to the general public, about matters of life and religion. Here the main role of the mosque Inyik Djambek Inyik inherited by Shaykh Muhammad Djamil Djambek.
On December 30, 1947 (18 Shafar 1366 H), Inyik Djambek died, leaving a large inheritance, wirid Khamis (every Tuesday), which remained alive until now, has been 103 years old. He was buried beside the mosque at the Central Rice Inyik Djambek Bukittinggi, in the age of 87 years.
A few months after that, January 26, 1948 (14 Rabi early 1366 H), close friend Inyik Djambek in preaching, namely Sheikh Daud Inyik Rasyidy (known as Inyik David, father Datuk Palimo Buya Kayo), also died in the mosque Inyik Djambek in Tangah Field, built 1908, when mengimami maghrib prayer, and the next day was buried beside Inyik Djambek, as the tomb of twins.
Until now, these two great scholars Minangkabau tomb was loyal guard surau Inyik Djambek, which has a century old.
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